The city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius[12][13] and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, and later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, learning, digital technology, retail, tourism and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. It has hosted the Great North Run, the world's biggest[citation needed] and most popular half marathon, since it began in 1981. The run follows a route from Newcastle to nearby South Shields.[14]


    2 3 4 5